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Waste Management

Indonesian cities are facing serious problems managing municipal solid waste (MSW)

waste management Indonesia

  • Indonesia is facing a serious problem with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). MSW estimates increase 2 to 4% per year.
  • Every Indonesian generates 0.76 kg per day of MSW and in 2010, the total MSW produced was approximately 65.9 million tons.
  • Indonesia has only about five hundred central dumpsites with total daily capacity of about 23,204 tons.
  • For 2010-2014, the Directorate General of Human Settlements’ budget for waste management was US$0.48 billion.
  • Government Act 18/2008 states that the new goal for waste management policy is in solid waste management.

MSW in Indonesia


Like many cities in developing countries, the volume of MSW in Jakarta and others large Indonesian cities is rising significantly with the increasing population and economic development. Estimates of MSW in Indonesia  increase 2 – 4% per year. Indonesian still needs a good solution for waste management.

Indonesia’s population has grown at a rate of 1.5% per year from 205 million in 2000 to 253 million in 2014. As a consequence of a high urbanization rate, over half of the population lives in urban areas. According to the State Ministry of Environment (MoE), every Indonesian generates 0.76 kg/day of MSW. Thus, the total MSW produced in 2014 was over 70 million tons. That amount is double compared to 2006.  The issue of waste management and disposal has become critical.

Almost all of the landfills were originally designed as controlled landfills, some of them even as sanitary landfills. In fact, all of them were operated as “controlled-dumps”.  This means there is no treatment carried out on incoming waste,  soil cover applications are  irregular, a many pickers pick the waste on site, there is inadequate leachate treatment and landfill gas emissions are released into the atmosphere without any treatment.


Indonesian Cities are also Face Waste Picker

Although waste picking is not officially allowed at landfills, all sites were occupied by waste pickers. The Ministry of Cooperative, Small and Medium Enterprises (MoCSM) estimates five to six thousand of these people are living and working on the site of Bantar Gebang landfill in Jakarta. In 2008 it was estimated that the country has around 1.2 million waste pickers. Indonesia only has about 500 central dumpsites (TPA) with total daily capacity about 23,204 tons. With the total MSW produced was approximately 65.9 million tons in 2010, this means Indonesia can only process about 13 percent of all MSW.

Even with current technology development, Indonesia still lags behind developed countries such those in Europe and America. The need for a good waste management system is rapidly increasing as is health awareness in Indonesia. For 2010-2014, Directorate General of Human Settlements’ budget for waste management was US$0.48 billion. In 2014 the budget for waste management is US$0.105 billion, up from only US$ 0.023 billion in 2010. With a loan of US$100 million from the German Government, Indonesia plans to build central dumpsites on Java (Malang, Jambi, Jombang, Sidoarjo, and Pekalongan).

However, the new goals of the Solid Waste Management Act 18/2008 are controlling the quantity of waste with Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (3R), defining the responsibility of producers of goods in controlling waste, and the idea that waste has economic value. The government budgeted US$2 million in 2010-2014 for educating Indonesians about 3R. The Japan International Cooperation Agency also joined in to help the Indonesian Government run this program.


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